International English Olympiad Forum By SOF Olympiad Trainer - Page 55

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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 8

READ THE PASSAGE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS THAT FOLLOW.
Without a formal hierarchy, how do members of online communities work together to create vast founts of knowledge such as Wikipedia? A recent study examines how leadership can emerge in online communities. It seems to indicate that for companies who wish to leverage the influence of online community leaders, identifying those leaders will be more complex than expected.
Who are online leaders? It turns out that online leaders or those considered to influence the way the internet seems to weight certain ideas above others is centrally down to a group of trendsetters who, in general, are people who are related in some way or other to a topic i.e. fashion leaders on facebook that everyone follows or foody people who push restaurants and new food trends. They are essentially people like you and I; an exciting prospect and an interesting one considering how they are created.
How do online communities, whose members are scattered across the globe, work so successfully without formal control structures? While traditional organisations rely on control mechanisms, online communities are loosely coordinated, selforganising, and voluntary. Some observers have labelled online communities "leaderless organisations". When researchers started, it was unclear whether leadership existed at all in online communities. While other studies subsequently uncovered some insights, such as how individuals move from the outskirts to the centre, in the most recent study researchers developed an integrated framework to study leadership in online communities. Traditional leadership theory says that leaders assign tasks and manage relationships, while other research shows that influential members occupy central positions in the organisational structure. The researchers in this case set out to discover whether similar ideas also apply to online communities. To gather data, they surveyed users and studied messages from three online communities focused on technical topics related to programming, examining both the behaviours and structural position within the networks of those identified by other participants as leaders.
The researchers' findings indicate that leaders are mainly distinguished by their task-based behaviours. They contribute knowledge by answering queries, sometimes sharing programming code, and giving personal assessments. Tenure (duration of membership) and participation were positively associated with being identified as a leader, but the number of questions asked by a participant had a negative association, which indicates that a leader is more likely to provide answers than questions. The researchers also rated postings for the existence and frequency of sign-offs, thanks, and personal anecdotes — signs of sociability within online communities — and found that sociability was less significant than knowledge contribution.
However, it can't be concluded that sociability is unimportant in all online communities, just that it is not as important as technical knowledge contribution in the communities studied, which are all dedicated to sharing technical expertise. In technical forums, such as those dedicated to programming, there are, often, correct and incorrect answers to questions; on the other hand, in online communities organised around social support or political action, relationships and sociable behaviour of influential members may be valued more. These more subjective sites may well have a different set of rules governing choice for those inclined to follow trend setters.
The researchers complemented their approach with a structural approach, using the concept of social capital, or resources accessed by virtue of relational ties. In traditional organisations, members in top positions can get information from unconnected groups and trade off on it. For example, doing someone a favour and expecting it to be returned. The researchers wondered whether a similar edge could be gained online. After all, in the context of knowledge collaboration, information is key, and an individual who "bridges" unconnected parts of the network benefits from arbitrage opportunities. By making ties between who responded to whom in the online community, the researchers did indeed find that structural social capital was strongly associated with leadership. Although there is no way to know what came first, the leader's position or the social capital. They also found that leadership is a lot more concentrated than expected: out of nearly 1,000 participants in the study, only 42 were identified as leaders, while fewer still, were nominated 9 or more times!
To an observer there seems to be as many uncertainties as there are answers in this very complex system of cyber leadership and although it may seem that, in actuality, very few people have a lot of control over web content the speed at which leaders are replaced is a clear area of study worth considering because anecdotally the rapid replacements of leaders help bring the diversity and freedom the internet seems to provide. So, we may not have more leaders in the future but instead more people embarking upon and ending their leadership roles.
The author thinks that in the future there will be _________.

A fewer leaders than previously
B no more leaders
C different leaders
D more leaders than previously


Its option A.

Ans 1:

Class : Class 8
It has to be option a)

Ans 2:

Class : Class 8
I feel that option A is right, because it's clearly mentioned in the last line.

Ans 3:

Class : Class 8

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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 5

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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 3

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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 4

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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 4

Ans 1:

Class : Class 4
D

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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 4

READ THE PASSAGE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS THAT FOLLOW.

Six tons of pure power whacks an ice floe floating in cold Arctic waters. The seal lying on top of the ice doesn't stand a chance. Knocked into the sea, the seal becomes a meal for one of the ocean's top predators–the huge orca, or killer whale.
Orcas hunt everything from fish to walruses, seals, sea lions, penguins, squid, sea turtles, sharks, and even other kinds of whales. Depending on the season and where they are, their diet varies - some orcas eat more fishes and squid than seals and penguins. But wherever they are in any of the world's oceans, average-sized orcas may eat about 500 pounds (227 kilograms) of food a day. Orcas have many hunting techniques, and bumping seals off ice is just one of them.
Often referred to as wolves of the sea, orcas live and hunt together in cooperative pods, or family groups, much like a pack of wolves. They work together as they hunt. Groups of orcas cooperate to herd fish into a compact area so that they're easier to eat. They will also slap their tails onto the water's surface, causing a wave to wash prey, such as penguins or sea lions, off ice floes and into the water. Sometimes, a pod of whales will join forces to surround a larger animal, such as a blue whale. They chase, bite, and wear it down until it becomes a meal.
Orcas' teeth, numbering about 45 and each measuring about 3 inches (7.6 centimetres) long, are shaped for ripping and tearing prey. Orcas do not chew their food. They can swallow small seals and sea lions whole. The prey easily slides down the orcas' throats. Bigger prey is eaten in chunks. Ocras' backs are black and their stomachs are white. Animals looking down on an orca from above, such as a seal on an ice floe, might not see it because the whale's dark back blends with the water below. On the other hand, the whale's white underside blends with the light streaming down into the sea from the surface, making it hard to be spotted from below. The colour pattern of orcas help them sneak up on their prey and attack them. With orcas camouflaged so well, those prey fish, penguins or seals are likely to miss the danger heading their way, as the killer whale once again proves it is the oceans' superbly designed hunter.

How is it possible for orcas to camouflage in the sea water?

A Their dark back and white underside hide them well from their preys above and below the water.
B The orcas like to chase, bite and wear their preys down.
C They have many hunting techniques.
D They are the ultimate killing machine; they do not need to camouflage.


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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 8

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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 5

READ THE PASSAGE AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS THAT FOLLOW.

Duncan and his magician teacher, Meerfus, were at the market. They went to the market several times a month, especially for fresh vegetables or ingredients for wands. One never could tell what would be useful in a wand. Meerfus lingered by some cages of various birds. He eyed a few chickens critically, and Duncan watched, trying to guess the reasoning behind Meerfus' interest. "Will we make a wand that helps you fly?" Asked Duncan excitedly. Flying seemed pretty fun, after all. Meerfus raised an eyebrow at him, as if he were crazy. "I'm thinking about dinner, Duncan."

"Oh." Duncan said, crestfallen that it was something as simple as that. Meerfus selected a chicken in a wicker cage, paid for it, and handed the cage to Duncan to carry. The anxious bird squawked loudly and pecked at his fingers through the cage. Duncan carried it dutifully, feeling foolish. Next, they stopped by some farmers' tables. Meerfus selected some cucumbers, a sack of potatoes, which they put in their rolling cart, and some tomatoes on the vine. "Will those vines help us make a magic wand that tangles up people's feet?" Duncan inquired. Meerfus eyed his apprentice again. "No, they're for a salad. We need something to eat with our chicken."

Duncan sighed, wrong again, and trudged alongside his master. They next stopped at a booth that sold fishing supplies. There were all manners of hooks, lures and fishing implements. Meerfus seemed particularly interested in the fishing flies, ones that looked almost like butterflies or mayflies with hidden hooks. "Are we going to make a wand that helps you catch fish with the those flies?" worried, asked Duncan. He'd already been wrong twice. Could his intuitions be so wrong? Meerfus laughed. "No, I actually enjoy fishing. I was thinking about going again in the river down the road."

Duncan groaned in frustration. "How am I so wrong today? I cannot believe you are not trying to get things for wands! How am I so clueless?" Meerfus laughed, shaking his head. "You are not as wrong as you think, just distracted. You didn't notice me pick up pheasant feathers while you handled the chicken. Those are for a wand of slow descent, which helps people fall without getting hurt. That is something like flying, right?" "And the vegetables?" Duncan asked suspiciously. "The flowers from cucumber vines are not only pretty, but they do help in a wand of coloured lights, a wand of plant growth, or a wand of dazzling." "Was there anything at the fishing booth? There had to be."

Meerfus winked at his student. "What do you think?" Duncan thought hard, trying to remember what else Meerfus had touched or bought. "Was it the fishing line that you bought?" "Exactly; it does make for a great wand of fish catching once we get some fish scales!" Duncan laughed in relief. His instincts were not so wrong - he just had to be more observant. It was all in the details!

What are cucumber flowers useful for?

AWand of slow descent
BWand of fish catching
CWands of coloured lights, plant growth and dazzling
DAll of these


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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 7

READ THE PASSAGE AND ANSWER THE QUESTION THAT FOLLOWS.

There is nothing more frustrating than when you sit down at your table to study with the most sincere of intentions and instead of being able to finish the task at hand, you find your thoughts wandering. However, there are certain techniques that you can use to enhance your concentration. “Your concentration level depends on a number of factors,” says Sonali Ghosh, a social counsellor. “In order to develop your concentration span, it is necessary to examine various facts of your physical and internal environment,” she adds. To begin with, one should attempt to create the physical environment that is conducive to focussed thought. Whether it is the radio, TV or your noisy neighbours, identify the factors that make it difficult for you to focus. For instance, if you live in a very noisy neighbourhood, you could try to plan your study hours in a nearby library.
She disagrees with the notion that people can concentrate or study in an environment with distractions like a loud television, blaring music, etc. “If you are distracted when you are attempting to focus, your attention and retention powers do not work at optimum levels,” cautions Ghosh, “Not more than two of your senses should be activated at the same time,” she adds. What that means is that music that sets your feet tapping is not the ideal accompaniment to your books. Also, do not place your study table or desk in front of a window. “While there is no cure for a mind that wants to wander, one should try and provide as little stimulus as possible. Looking out of a window when you are trying to concentrate will invariably send your mind on a tangent,” says Ghosh. The second important thing, she says, is to establish goals for oneself instead of setting a general target and then trying to accomplish what you can in a haphazard fashion. It is very important to decide what you have to finish in a given span of time. The human mind recognises fixed goals and targets and appreciates schedules more than random thoughts. Once your thoughts and goals are in line, a focussed system will follow.
She recommends that you divide your schedule into study and recreation hours. When you study, choose a mix of subjects that you enjoy and dislike and save the former for the last so that you have something to look forward to. For instance, if you enjoy verbal skill tests more than mathematical problems, then finish Maths first. Not only will you find yourself working harder, you will have a sense of achievement when you wind up.
Try not to sit for more than 40 minutes at a stretch. Take a very short break to make a cup of tea or listen to a song and sit down again. Under no circumstances, should one sit for more than one and a half hours. Short breaks build your concentration and refresh your mind. However, be careful not to overdo the relaxation. It may have undesired effects. More than anything else, do not get disheartened. Concentration is merely a matter of disciplining the mind. It comes with practice and patience and does not take very long to become a habit for life.

In order to develop one's concentration span, one should ________.

Aexamine various facts of one's physical and internal environment
Bidentify the factors that make it difficult for one to focus
Ccreate the physical environment that is conducive to focussed thought
DBoth A and B


the answer should be all of the above

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Subject :IEO    Class : Class 5

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