The Holiness of Saint Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc was a young girl of seventeen. She believed that if France could put together a strong army, it could free itself from foreign rule. France was at that time ruled by Prince Henry of England. Joan was a simple, uneducated daughter of a farmer. Girls those days did not have the freedom they have now. It was amazing that a simple girl like Joan should have such ambitious ideas. Her conviction that her country could be free was so strong that she met Prince Charles of France and convinced him that he was the rightful ruler of the country. After a great deal of persuasion, Joan of Arc convinced Prince Charles to allow her to command a force to relieve Orleans. Prince Charles gave his permission and Joan of Arc led an army of French soldiers to the city of Orleans which had been conquered by the English. So great was the courage of her conviction that this young girl whipped up tremendous enthusiasm and patriotism among her soldiers. They fought fearlessly against the English. The English soldiers were taken aback by the fervour of the attacking French soldiers and retreated from Orleans. After this grand victory, she persuaded Charles to be crowned as "King of France". She led the armies of France in many other campaigns after this and restored her country’s national pride. Joan of Arc thus achieved what had seemed an impossible task through her courage and determination. She continued to lead the French army from victory to victory but was captured in an encounter in 1420 and handed over to the English. The English put her through a trial which was a mockery of justice and burned her at the stake as a witch. The French people adore Joan as their greatest national heroine. She was made a saint in 1920.
Now, choose the most appropriate options : Joan of Arc was a seventeen years old ____________ girl who had a strong ____________ that her country could be free from foreign rule. She ____________ French Prince Charles and convinced him to allow her to command a force to relieve Orleans. French soldiers fought fearlessly and made their way to victory. Charles was crowned as "____________ of France". She was captured and _____?______ alive by the English in 1420. French people adore her.
Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.
We all love to wear our blue jeans but what do we know about them? It all began in the Nevada region of the United States. In the 1850s, there were many people searching for gold and mining for it. This was called the Gold Rush. Miners had to dig deep to find even a little gold. They had to work very hard and for a long time. Their clothes tore easily. A miner’s wife decided to get a sturdy pair of trousers for her husband. So, she went to a tailor named Jacob W. Davis and told him what she wanted.
He was not an ordinary tailor. He used to stitch horse blankets, wagon covers and tents. Jacob understood what his customer wanted. It had to be strong cotton cloth and should not tear easily. He found some material called denim with a man named Levi Strauss. He stitched the first pair of denim overalls. To make the pair last longer, Jacob decided to fix small metal pins or rivets near the pockets, zipper and other areas to make them last longer. The overalls were tough and looked strong. Soon, everyone wanted a pair of riveted pants!
Davis decided to own the design. So, he became partners with Levi Strauss. Together, they got the denim overalls patented on 20th May, 1873 and Levi Strauss Jeans was born. There was no looking back from then on. Hollywood cowboy movies cast their actors in Levi’s and made them famous all across America. They soon became a symbol of young, American culture. Some people felt that denim overalls were ‘worker’s clothes’ and not right for school. Yet, in 1959, a newspaper reported that 90% of young Americans were wearing denim pants everywhere except to bed and church. By the 1960s, the name ‘jeans’ was given to the blue overalls.
Europe and parts of Asia wanted them too and they became famous worldwide. Soon, people of all ages wore them. In 1969, a magazine reported that denim is one of the oldest fabrics but will remain eternally young. How true!
According to the passage, what does the phrase 'eternally young' mean?
A Remain young always
B Stay alive endlessly
C Be liked by many forever
D Show no wear and tear