## EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS- ESSENTIAL POINTS

• Computer is not a single machine but a collection of different complicated parts, so development of each part can be considered as a separate invention. Many Scientists have contributed to the history of computers.
• Computing devices which were developed prior to the existing computer are as follows:

1. Abacus Many centuries ago when man started to count the numbers, he thought of a device which can trace the numbers and thus came the existence of ABACUS. It was the first counting device which was developed in China more than 3000 years ago. This device basically consists of a rectangular wooden frame and beads. The frame contains horizontal rods and the beads which have holes are passed through the rods. Counting was done by moving the beads from one end of the frame to the other.
2. Napier �s Bones It is a ,device which contains a set of rods made of bones. It was developed by John Napier, a Scottish Mathematician and hence the device was named as Napier�s Bones. The device was mainly developed for performing multiplication and division. Later in 1614 he also introduced logarithms.
3. Pascaline is a calculating machine developed by Blaise Pascal, a French Mathematician. It was the first device with an ability to perform additions and subtractions on whole numbers. The device is made up of interlocked cog wheels which contains numbers 0 to 9 on its circumference. When one wheel completes its rotation the other wheel moves by one segment. Pascal patented this device in 1647.
4. Punched Card System is used for storing and retrieving data. This was invented by Herman Hollerith, an American Statistician in US Census Bureau. The system stores the data coded in the form of punched holes.
5. Tabulator Herman Hollerith also invented Tabulator which was the first step towards programming. The first tabulator which he invented in 1890 was used to operate only on 1890 census cards.

• Digital Era Coming to the digital era, Binary system made its entry into the computer world. According to this system, 0�s and 1�s were used. This system was suggested by Claude Shannon, an American Mathematician.
• The evolution period of the computer we are using today evolved in various countries by various people the as follows:

1. It was in 1937 that Alan Turing came up with the concept of a theoretical Turing machine. In the same year, the first electronic computer was built by Dr. John Vincent Atanasoff, a Physics Professor and Clifford Berry. The computer was names as ABC(Atanasoff-Berry Computer). This computer used vacuum tubes for data storage. It was designed mainly for solving systems of simultaneous equations.
2. In 1943, the Colossus was secretly designed at Bletchley Park, Britain to decode German messages. The Harvard Mark I of 1944 was a large-scale electromechanical computer with less programmability.
3. The U.S. Army's Ballistics Research Laboratory came up with the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer (ENIAC) in 1946. It came to be known as the first general purpose electronic computer.
4. In 1947, Transistors were introduced into the computers. With the introduction of transistors, computations were simpler and faster.
5. The U.S. National Bureau of Standards came up with Standards Electronic/Eastern Automatic Computer (SEAC) in 1950. Diodes handled all the logic making it the first computer to base its logic on solid devices.
6. In 1957, IBM developed FORTRAN.
7. In 1959, Integrated Circuit(IC) came into existence which was later used in the computers.
8. In 1960, Mainframe computer was designed which used IC for the first time.
9. In 1970, Memory chip with 1KB storage capacity was developed by Intel.
10. In 1975, First micro computer was developed by H. Edward Roberts(now the father of micro computer).
11. In 1980�s and 1990�s, many modifications and upgradations were done and the usage of chips and various other stuffs changed the computers completely.
• AI (artificial intelligence) is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. These processes include learning (the acquisition of information and rules for using the information), reasoning (using the rules to reach approximate or definite conclusions) and self-correction.

I am in