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IN FOCUS

The New Year

Happy New Year

New Year is here and we all are set to bid farewell to 2019 and welcome 2020 with open arms, resolutions, hopes and wishes for the time to come. As we progress into the new year lets enjoy some interesting facts about the New Year?

We all know that if its night in India its day in America, so isn't it amusing that we usher in the New Year at different times. Well its better than, one welcoming the New Year in the day and the other in the night, and then there would be the confusion of whose day and whose night.

To resolve this some smart people divided the earth evenly into 24 one-hour time zones i.e. the lines of longitude, so that morning would be morning, afternoon would be afternoon, and evening would be evening no matter where you live.

So, how many New Year countdowns are there in our world?

There are 40 different countdowns to the new year! Interestingly the expanse of China has only 1 time zone, U.S. and Russia have more than a half- dozen time zones each.

Which country is the first to celebrate the New Year and which is the last?

New Years is first celebrated on the small island nation of Kiribati/Chritmas and ends with the Baker Island in the middle of Pacific Ocean.

When do astronauts celebrate New Year's Day?

Well, astronauts celebrate the New Year's Day as per the GMT timing. Though, its interesting to know that whereas the new Year comes only once a year on Earth, for astronauts aboard the International Space Station, the New Year's Day comes 16 times, as they orbit the Earth once every 90 minutes. That is, 16 sunsets and sunrises 250 miles (402.3 kilometres) above the Earth, according to a post published by NASA.

What is the history of the New Year?

The New Year was first celebrated on January 1st in 153 BCE in Rome by the civil Roman calendar, which marked the beginning of tenure for new Roman consuls. However, the celebration was not strictly adhered to as many Romans still celebrated their new year on March 1st. In 46 BCE Julius Caesar started using a solar-based calendar which maintained January 1st as the New Year day and was widely observed in the Roman Empire. In medieval Europe, January 1st as the New Year was briefly abolished as it was considered a pagan holiday. January 1st was later restored as the New Year following the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582.

So, you see, the New Year is generally a very recent concept as compared to the human civilisation on this Earth. Anyway, Cheers to the New year and Wishes for a wonderful Year ahead.

In Story

The Math Dunce

The Math Dunce

That year, in the local school, there was a new Math teacher, as well as some new pupils. One of the new kids was the stupidest child anyone had ever seen. It made no difference how quickly or how slowly they tried explaining numbers to him; he would always end up saying something enormously dumb. Like two plus two was five, seven times three was twenty-seven, or a triangle had thirty corners...

Before this boy arrived, Maths lessons had been the most boring of all. Now they were great fun. Encouraged by the new teacher, the children would listen to the pieces of nonsense spouted by the new kid, and they would have to correct his mistakes.

They all wanted to be the first to find his mistakes, and then think up the most original ways to explain them. To do this they used all kinds of stuff: sweets, playing cards, oranges, paper planes...

It didn't seem like any of this bothered the new kid.
However, little Lewis was sure that it was bound to make him feel sad inside.
So, one day, he decided to follow the new kid home after school; Lewis was sure he would see him crying.

On leaving school, the new kid walked a few minutes to a local park, and there he waited for a while, until someone came along to meet him...

It was the new teacher!

The teacher gave the new kid a hug, and off they went, hand in hand. Following from a distance, Lewis could hear they were talking about Math.

And that stupid new kid knew everything about it, much more than anyone in the class!

By:Pedro Pablo Sacristan

UNSUNG HEROS

NBT

Radhanath Sikdar

'Sir, I have discovered the highest mountain of the world'.

These were the words spoken by Radhanath Sikdar, a professional mathematician who was the first person to calculate the height of Mount Everest.

Radhanath (October 1813 - 17 May 1870) was an Indian Bengali mathematician who is best known for calculating the height of Mount Everest.

In 1831 a 19 year old Sikdar joined the Great Trignometric Survey as a 'Computer' under the Surveyor General of India George Everest who was searching for a brilliant young mathematician with particular proficiency in spherical trigonometry. (the term "computer", in use from the early 17th meant "one who computes": a person performing mathematical calculations)

It was in 1851 that Radhanath started measuring the snow-capped mountains in Darjeeling. In 1852 on a fine morning Sikdar discovered that the mountain peak then known as Peak XV was higher than Kanchenjunga, (28,169 ft/ 8,586m) which was considered to be the tallest in the world till then.

Sikdar had calculated the height of peak XV at exactly 29,000 ft. It was officially announced in March 1856, and this remained the height of Mount Everest till an Indian survey re-calculated it to be 29,029 ft (8,848 m) in 1955.

This peak XV was then named as Mount Everest in honour of George Everest the first Surveyor General of India.

In recognition of Sikdar's mathematical genius, the German Philosophical Society made him a Corresponding Member in 1864, a very rare honour of that time. The Department of Posts, Government of India, launched a postal stamp on 27 June 2004, commemorating the establishment of the Great Trigonometric Survey in Chennai, India on 10 April 1802, featuring Radhanath Sikdar.

Radhanath Sikdar passed away in May 1870, and his name gradually faded into oblivion. It is an honour to remember this great Indian mathematician.

INTER ACTIVITY

WORD POWER

These are words that have their vowels missing. Given below are some Mathematical words whose vowels have been removed. Can you identify them?

MNS DCML LN FRCTN
NGL GRPH MLTPLCTN VRG
ZR DVSN SQR PLS
CRCL QL DGR DDTN

BRAIN TEASERS

BRAIN TEASERS
BRAIN TEASERS

ILLUSION

Illusion
Cube OR Hexagon

In Formation

HIDDEN GEMS OF INDIA

HIDDEN GEMS OF INDIA
Chand Baori - A Mystical Visual Maze

Chand Baori was built and named after King Chand Raja of the Gujara Pratihara clan, who claim to be the descendants of Laxman, brother of Lord Ram. It is a stepwell situated in the Abhaneri village in the Jaipur district of Rajasthan and is one of the oldest, deepest and the biggest wells in the world.

Chand Baori is a perfect fusion of geometry and human expertise, and is much more than a water reservoir. A gorgeous inverted pyramid like structure, it is a 35-metre-deep square well, with 35,000 steps built on 13 levels.

The walls of the well are symmetrically lined with two flights of steps each on three sides of the wall. It is based on the concept of equilateral triangle pattern where three smaller triangles would form a bigger triangle. The stairs enfold the water on three sides while the fourth side boasts of a three-storey pavilion, with beautifully carved jharokhas and galleries supported on pillars. There are two projecting balconies with beautiful sculptures and paintings.

For those interested in period architecture, the trabeated arches used by the Chauhan rulers and the cusped arches used by the Mughals can be clearly seen in the original part of the building and the new blocks which were added by the Mughals.

An ancient Indian feat of mathematical perfection, it is a must visit places of India.

HAPPENINGS

  1. 100 Years Ago, On November 6, 1919 Albert Einstein Became a Legend when Arthur Eddington's presentation about a solar eclipse confirmed Einstein's theories, skyrocketing the theoretical physicist to fame.

  2. 2020 year marks 40 years of the Rubik's Cube first hitting toy shelves. While the cube's literal insides may be made of plastic, the amazing math Inside the Rubik's Cube are nothing but numbers.
  1. In 2012, on the the 125th birth anniversary of the great Indian mathematician the Indian government declared December 22 to be National Mathematics Day. Since then, December 22 is celebrated as India's National Mathematics Day.


  2. Shakuntala Devi once said 'What is mathematics? It is only a systematic effort of solving puzzles posed by nature'.

IN ENGLISH

Mathematical Symbols

Every day in our lives we come across many symbols in mathematics. In fact, the language of math is written in symbols, with some text inserted for explanation.

There are some symbols of maths that we use quite frequently, but do we know the names of those symbols. Let's see:

  1. * Asterisk - In mathematics, the asterisk symbol most commonly refers to multiplication.
  2. & Ampersand - It almost always means "and," both in and outside of mathematics.
  3. ^ Caret - In is a symbol used to indicate exponentiation or raised to a power.
  4. Lemniscate - It is a mathematical symbol representing the concept of infinity.
  1. # Octothorpe - The symbol # is most commonly known as the number sign, hash, or pound sign.
  2. {[( )]} Parentheses, Brackets, and Braces - Inside to outside. - The open (or left) and close (or right) parenthesis are almost always used as a pair. Parentheses, brackets, and braces are sometimes referred to as "round," "square," and "curly" brackets, respectively. In maths, operations enclosed in parentheses are always done from inside to outside, the order always being parentheses, brackets, braces, as {[( )]}
Mathematical Symbols

ANSWERS

WORD POWER


MINUS DECIMAL LINE FRACTION
ANGLE GRAPH MULTIPLICATION AVERAGE
ZERO DIVISION SQUARE PLUS
CIRCLE EQUAL DEGREE ADDITION
BRAIN TEASERS
BRAIN TEASERS

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